On-site combustion in HCCI engine for system development and power generation for solar-powered hydrogen production.


Solar energy based multigeneration systems including hydrogen generation and its on-site use in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines has been developed and analysed powerfully and powerfully.  This unique design of electricity generation through on-site use of hydrogen reduces the high cost of transporting hydrogen and space storage.  The exhaust of the HCCI engine is used to run the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turbine, and the heat rejected by the ORC working fluid at the exit of the turbine is used to operate the absorber chiller to cool the photovoltaic (PV) panels.  The operating conditions and their impact on the overall system and power efficiency of the PV panels and the output power of the HCCI engine are reviewed.  This innovative cooling system improves the power and energy efficiency of PV panels from 14.9% and 15.7% to 20.7% and 21.8% respectively.  After combining the ORC turbine and the suction chiller the overall system power and energy efficiency improved significantly from 37.4% and 33.6% to 53.4% โ€‹โ€‹and 46.8%, respectively.  The maximum power output from the HCCI engine is 4800 kW.  This proposed system is better than conventional solar-based hydrogen production systems.


Fossil fuel depletion and climate permutation are intensifying the importance and importance of energy efficient integrated multi-generational systems.  Increasing energy demands in an environmentally friendly way requires the adoption of multigeneration systems.  Renewables contribute 19% to our energy use in 2012 and 2013 and 22% to our power generation (Global Status Report, 2014).  Demand for advanced renewable energy is increasing in four specific areas: electricity generation, heating and cooling, transportation fuels and rural / off-grid energy services.  Recently, renewable energy industries have increased flexibility, diversification, and developed global supply chains to meet the needs of global markets.  Many industries, especially solar energy, have had difficult years but many solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers returned to profitability by the end of 2013 (Global Status Report, 2014).

Multigenerational systems are designed and developed in an integrated fashion to allow multiple useful outputs with a single input.  Multi-generational systems are used to increase efficiency and sustainability and reduce environmental impact and cost.  Dincer and Zamfirescu (2012) developed a conceptual study and confirmed that multigenerational renewable energy source systems offer better efficiency, cost, sustainability and environmental performance.  Multigeneration processes have the potential for high energy efficiencies, low operating costs and low pollutant emissions (Ahmadi et al., 2012).  Al-Ali and Dinser (2014) developed a multigeneration system and showed an increased energy efficiency of 75% compared to 16.4% in the case of a single generation.  After switching the system from single generation to multigeneration, energy efficiency has improved by 10%.  Al-Sulaiman et al.  (2011) conducted a study on electrical energy efficiency and reported an increase of 14% to 94% when the system was switched from single generation to trigeneration.

Ahmadi et al.  (2014) conducted a power and labour analysis to determine the variances of each component of a new multi-generational system based on an ocean thermal energy conversion unit with flat plate and PV / T solar collectors, a reverse osmosis desalination unit for producing fresh water.  , Single effect absorber chiller and proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer.  Ozlu and Dincer (2015) have developed the codes for the exergonic and exergonic environmental analyses of the solar-wind hybrid multi-generational system and found maximum energy and exergy efficiency of 43% and 65%, respectively.  Khalid et al.  (2015) conducted energy and energy analysis of the solar-biomass combined cycle for multi-generational and found that energy and energy efficiency increase with the integration of two renewable energy sources.  Ibrahim and Dinser (2015) designed and built a combined solar desalination unit and solar powered absorption cooling unit.  Ibrahim and Dinser (2015) used photovoltaic panels to supply heat to maintain the lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption cooling unit and recorded the maximum desalination unit efficiency, minimum evaporative temperature of the absorber chiller, and energy efficiency of the entire system.  40%, 4.7 ยฐ C and 13.75%, respectively, in August.

The cost of hydrogen production through electrolysis constitutes a significant portion of the cost of electricity.  Power for electrolysis can be generated through commercially available renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind, however, higher module costs and lower energy efficiency make these options less attractive.  On the other hand, on-site power generation for the electrolyzer improves system efficiency and reduces the cost of power distribution, but it is limited by land-use constraints and resource availability (Ingler, 2007).  An electrolyzer capable of producing 1500 kg of hydrogen daily produces enough hydrogen to meet the fuel demand of 300 cars per day (Hydrogen-Bellona Raport, 2002).

There are many ways to produce hydrogen from water, but electrolysis is one of the most practical ways to produce hydrogen from water without the use of fossil fuels.  The increased demand for hydrogen has spurred the development of a new and improved water electrolyzer.  Dini (1983) conducted the analysis of a solar powered electrolyzer for large-scale hydrogen production plants.  Ozcan and Dincer (2014) conducted an analysis of the solar-powered hydrogen production plant and found that the highest energy destruction occurs in the solar field, which accounts for 70.9% of the total system destruction.  Pure and sustainable hydrogen can be produced by combining a renewable energy source with photoelectric ation processes in water.  The integration of renewable energies in autonomous systems can be facilitated through sustainable hydrogen production processes such as electrolysis (Ursua et al., 2012).

Ratlamwala and Dincer (2015) conducted comparative energy and energy analyzes of two solar-based integrated systems to produce hydrogen and found that the rate of hydrogen production increases from 986.0 kg / day to 2248.6 kg / day and 1197.4 kg / day to 2672.1 kg / day, respectively.  The solar light intensity rises from 600 W / m2 to 1200 W / m2.  Bicer and Dincer (2016) proposed and analyzsed a new integrated system for hydrogen production, energy, cooling and heating through solar and geothermal resources.  The overall energy and energy capabilities of this proposed system can reach up to 10.8% and 46.3%, respectively, for geothermal water temperatures of 210 ยฐ C.  Islam and others.  (2015) conducted an energetic and powerful analysis of the solar energy based multi-generational system and found that the power and efficiency of PV panels increased by 5.6% and 5.9% to 10.1% and 10.7% respectively through the integration of special cooling.  System.  Yilmaz et al.  (2016) conducted a review of solar-based hydrogen production methods and assured that the use of solar energy for hydrogen production is one of the most viable options for replacing fossil-based hydrogen production.

Yilanzi et al.  (2009) conducted an evaluation of solar hydrogen production methods, including their current status and concluded that hydrogen production is an environmentally friendly and sustainable option through the use of solar-powered systems.  Furthermore, improvements in the efficiency of PV, electrolyzer and fuel cell systems can affect system efficiency.  Photovoltaic hydrogen systems are one of the potential options to address current environmental and sustainability issues.

Exergy analysis of ethanol-fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines has been reported to some extent in the literature.  The performance of an ethanol fuel engine is affected by incomplete combustion and poor charge uniformity.  In addition, ethanol-like properties, high latent heat, diffusion properties, and fuel vaporisation are poor compared to gasoline (Haywood, 1988).  Humid ethanol fuel can compensate for the lack of internal combustion engine performance with hydrogen alloys.  Therefore, the Uniform Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is proposed as an interesting compromise between spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines.  Several studies (Heywood, 1988, Mack et al., 2009, Shedid and Elshokary, 2015) have shown promising results by using wet-ethanol as fuel in HCCI engines.  These results of modelling and experiments show that by burning 35% ethanol-in-water in the HCCI engine, attractive performance and low emissions can be achieved.

Advantages such as reduced emissions and increased efficiency can be achieved by mixing hydrogen with ethanol as fuel.  Therefore, thermodynamic modelling and analysis of hydrogen-enriched wet-ethanol-fueled HCCI engines is highly needed to predict its performance.  This detailed thermodynamic analysis provides a benefit to system performance by identifying real losses in its components.  Moreover, the share of renewable energy for power generation must be substantially increased.  Solar energy is an attractive choice because it is an abundant and sustainable source of universal energy.  Therefore, in the present study, the overall performance of PV hydrogen production is improved by cooling the PV panels through the integration of the absorber chiller.  In addition, this innovative integrated multigeneration system has successfully reduced low-cost, readily available PV panels.  To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no similar work has been reported in the literature yet.  The primary purpose of this research is to reduce the cost of transport and storage by using hydrogen in the HCCI engine for power generation.  Thermodynamic modelling and exergy analysis of the currently integrated solar energy-based multigeneration system is conducted.  This system includes: PV panels, electrolyzer, four-cylinder HCCI engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and absorber chiller.  In countries like Saudi Arabia, where electricity is generated for remote locations (off-grid areas), the temperature of photovoltaic panels is very high and the efficiency is low in the summer.

To achieve this objective, the following steps are performed:

  • Development of a Solar Energy Based Innovative Integrated Power System with Multigeneration System with Hydrogen Mixed Ethanol Powered HCCI Engine.
  • Detailed powerful and powerful analyses of the new proposed integrated multigeneration system.
  • Evaluation of system performance through energy and energy efficiency for all subsystems and comparative evaluation of the overall system.
  • Investigation of energy losses and destruction of subunits and key components of a newly developed multigeneration system.
  • Assessment and evaluation of the effects of changes in surrounding and operating conditions on the performance of the new integrated system.

  Fragments of section

System description

Schematic diagram of a solar energy based multigeneration system including a hydrogen-mixed wet ethanol powered HCCI engine is shown in Figure 1.  Power is not selected by the photovoltaic modules to drive the lectolizer.  The echolocator uses hydrogen, which is then ignited in a uniform charge compression ignition engine after mixing with ethanol.  Ethanol has been selected for blending due to its properties such as simple molecular structure and efficient burning.  Comparison of properties

Analysis and evaluation

If the energy and energy analysis is not implemented for each major component of the proposed system through the Engineering Equation Solver (EES).  The following assumptions have been made to examine this comprehensive multilayered system and behaviour.

  • The dead state characteristics for the system are Temperature To = 298 K and Pressure Po = 101.325 kPa.
  • The system operates under steady state.
  • The kinetic and potential energy changes are insignificant.
  • All turbines and pumps

Results and discussion

On-site combustion is presented in the HCCI engine for a comprehensive analysis of solar energy-driven hydrogen production and power generation.  A uniform charge compression ignition engine was identified based on the use of 20% hydrogen, 22.5% ethanol and 58.5% water as fuel.  Energy Analysis Energy analysis has been applied because it selects the key elements to improve the energy efficiency of the thermal system.  Both air and combustion


This research includes comprehensive energy and energy analysis for a solar energy-based multigeneration system including PV panels, electroliser, cylinder HCCI engine, four organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and modern chiller.  The proposed system is reviewed under different operating conditions.  Detailed energy and energy analyses result in mandatory results due to the use of renewable and environmentally assisted resources.  Strength and power


The authors acknowledge the support of the Deanship of Recent Research at King Fahd Petroleum and Minerals University (KFUPM) through Project # 1501 to achieve this work.

References (36

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