Batteries are an essential technology for all-electric and hybrid vehicles.
Electric vehicle installation considerations revolve around virtually the same thing: battery efficiency and safety, as well as the ability to charge on a regular, easy and quick basis. This begs the question for any battery designer: What can really limit the battery efficiency of hybrid and electric vehicles?
There are no mysterious answers to this problem; Every engineer understands that heat is the most important factor to maintain and control when developing the best battery. As a result, heat management operations are critical procedures for EV manufacturers. But do you know of all the obstacles you have to overcome in order to master the thermal performance of EV batteries?
The most common thermal management challenge is to keep electric vehicle batteries cool.
We focus on keeping the heat variations of the battery to a minimum. To get started, let’s recall why battery is such an important technology for all EVs, HEVs and PHEVs:
They allow for efficient electrical input of all types of EVs.
During acceleration, they deliver power to all motors.
Improve the autonomy and variety of all EVs.
They help reduce the size of all engines, including the engines used in HEVs that run on fossil fuels.
Also, improving regenerative braking (frictional heat is converted into energy)
To overcome the fundamental challenges that have slowed consumer adoption of electric vehicles, they still need to be updated:
Concerns about safety
Cost, weight and volume are all factors to consider.
Concerns regarding the reliability and durability of batteries
Performance deteriorates with time
What is the significance of battery temperature?
Before we go into the technical aspects of limiting battery temperature changes, let’s clarify the first priority in all power charging and battery-back systems: safety! The reason for this is obvious.
First and foremost, designers and automakers have a responsibility to protect drivers and passengers from any hazards that may result in injuries or fatalities.
Secondly, heat control is a major factor causing problems, which is currently a major component of R&D.
Here are a few matters to reflect on consideration on to make certain each protection and performance:
- The electrochemical system of the battery must be precisely controlled.
- When the battery is recharged, it should be safe and efficient, especially in fast charging mode, when heat is generated.
- In challenging settings, such as high-speed driving, summer heat or stop-and-start urban use, battery temperatures should be controlled to safe levels.
- The driver interface and information system must have reliable and unambiguous warning signals to ensure energy and energy availability.
What is the Best Electric Vehicle Battery Cooling System? – AVID Technology …image by Audi
How to manage the factors that affect battery temperature?
The importance of maintaining heat is created not only by battery activity but also by external factors such as ambient temperature from the Arctic to the tropics. The following are essential factors to remember:
To defend your battery machine from the out of doors environment, paintings on thermal insulation from the start of the layout method in your complete battery pack.
Insulation foams are the only way to achieve good results in terms of thermal management equipment because it can insulate your battery pack from outside (extreme heat or cold).
Consider the following heat-generating factors when building a thermal management system:
But on the other hand, if you want to protect and control the heat generated from the inside of your battery pack, you have two choices!
Either you can separate each component from one another, in which case elastomeric foams (such as silicones) are an ideal choice because of their inherent heat resistance and their lightness.
The second alternative is the displacement of heat, which is a bit more complicated due to the use of a cooling system (cooling plate + cooling fluids). The purpose, in this case, is to transfer heat from the hot battery cells to the cooling plate. To get there, a suitable Thermal Interface Material (TIM) is required between the two components.
The purpose, in this case, is to transfer heat from the hot battery cells to the cooling plate. To get there, it is crucial to have a suitable Thermal Interface Material (TIM) between the two parts, but you should know that this affects the overall lightness of the design because thermal conductive materials may not be foamy: they are quite thick.
The main factor in resisting or eliminating heat is the use of thermal interface materials (TIMs), which can be composed of various materials in the form of pads, greases, liquid gap fillers, adhesives, and the like. Silicone is often used as the material of choice in specially formulated elastomeric silicone formulations or combinations including specialty fillers.
What are the thermal performance issues with EV batteries?
Excessive battery cells and thermal runaway:
Cells exposed to high temperatures deteriorate over time, rapidly affecting overall battery performance and efficiency. But this is not a bad scenario!
The battery pack contains hundreds of battery cells, all of which heat under your feet as you drive. Assume that an overheated cell can communicate with others and spread heat over the entire battery module.
Thermal Runaway is the name given to this event. Thermal runaway can cause unexpected fire, which no battery developer wants. That is why battery safety and thermal management are critical to insulating each cell to transmit heat to the cooling system (thermal conductivity) or to block thermal insulation.
External warming and thermal shock:
Thermal Shock is a state of sudden temperature fluctuations. This challenge of protecting the battery from outside temperatures can be overcome by installing a proper thermal insulation system: covering the battery modules (insulation silicone foam layer) and battery pack lids, as well as selecting performance sealing materials (silicone sealing. Foam) to close the pack.
Quick charging of the battery causes the temperature to rise due to the fast current. This may enhance the effect of hot conditions on the battery.
Thermal management materials:
Batteries heat up quickly at certain points throughout their operation cycle, such as when they are at full capacity or during the charging (or fast charging) process. Engineers are developing thermal management methods to manage the battery safely and efficiently. Choosing the right thermal management material is one of the most important parts of these systems.
These materials are designed to block heat transmission through thermal insulation, or vice versa, to force heat outside the cooling system (usually formed by cooling fluids): this is known as thermal conductivity.
In the market, a number of material technologies are accessible, the most important of which are silicones and polyurethanes. Understanding the nuances of these two technologies can be a headache for non-chemist engineers, as a single material can hide many product families.
Silicone foams, for example, are effective insulators, although silicone gap fillers are thermally conductive.
How to boom the performance of electrical cars in warm weather
Your first priority is to protect the electric vehicle’s battery pack from hot weather such as summer.
Here are some tips that can be applied to take care of your electric vehicle’s battery pack and increase the efficiency of the battery pack.
Put your electric car in the shade.
Parking your electric vehicle in shaded areas will help keep your battery cool, requiring less power to cool the car. Parking garages, especially underground units, are excellent, but finding a large tree to park below can help keep your electric car cool.
Keep the minimum 20% and maximum 80% fee.
Whether you own an electric vehicle or just a cell phone, you can be sure that contemporary batteries will charge around 20% to approximately 80% faster. At over 80%, it takes more effort to charge the battery than packing a bag.
This effort creates heat, which causes the problems described above. This is against the stated purpose of increasing the scope. However, it keeps the battery cool, which helps your car run more efficiently for miles you have to travel.
If you free up a little more power you may be able to use more of your car accessories, which brings us to our following two ideas.
When feasible, use a slow charger
Fast charging has become a major selling point for many EVs. Manufacturers want your electric car to be your only vehicle, however, it raises the issue of coverage for extended excursions. As a result, the faster the charge, the more desirable the vehicle.
On the other hand, fast charging creates more heat and requires heat to disperse through the cooling mechanism. Thus it is advisable to charge slowly throughout the heat. You must be prepared for this.
For example, instead of charging the battery immediately before leaving work, you can charge it overnight while at home.