Sodium-ion battery (NIB) is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a lithium-ion battery but uses sodium ions (Na +) as charge carriers. Its working principle and cell structure are almost identical to those of commercially widespread lithium-ion battery types, but sodium compounds are used instead of lithium compounds.
In an effort to eradicate the dendrite problem, scientists and engineers have been trying to develop sodium batteries for nearly a decade, replacing both lithium and cobalt used in conventional lithium-ion batteries with cheaper, more environmentally friendly sodium, and indicate recent advances. Researchers may have found a solution.
A team of researchers from the University of Texas has developed a stable sodium based battery material, funded in part by the US National Science Foundation. This new technology opposes the growth of dendrite and can be recharged as fast as conventional lithium-ion batteries but unlike lithium-ion batteries, it has the potential to provide higher power output.
Here’s how it works
The mechanism behind this new battery technology is to roll a thin sheet of sodium metal onto an antimony telluride powder, then fold the sheet repeatedly to create a new anode material. This results in a uniform distribution of sodium atoms, which opposes the formation of dendrites and rust, thus providing a safer and more stable solution.
But the lithium ion battery
The electrolyte carries positively charged lithium ions from the anode to the cathode and vice versa. The movement of lithium ions creates free electrons in the anode, creating a charge in the positive current collector. … The separator blocks the flow of electrons into the battery.
Compared to conventional battery technology, lithium-ion batteries charge faster, last longer, and have a higher power density for greater battery life in a lighter package.
In contrast to lithium-ion, sodium-ion batteries have lower energy density, perform better at cool temperatures, and have longer lifetimes, making them a better long-term investment.
Sodium-ion batteries offer good performance and operate over a wide range of temperatures. They are more efficient in cold weather compared to lithium-ion batteries. Another advantage of sodium-ion batteries over lithium-ion batteries is that they are non-combustible and have no thermal runway.
Na-ion batteries are significantly cheaper than Li-ion batteries because they can be harvested more readily than sodium lithium and are available in large quantities on earth.
These metals can be potentially recycled, refined, and recycled in new battery production.
Sodium based batteries can operate in high energy density, long life and harsh environments, such as temperatures from -40 ° C to +60 ° C. For these reasons they can be found in the application of energy grid storage, such as wind- and solar-energy-gathering energy from renewable energy sources.
Na-ion cells have the same operating principle as Li-ion cells and are expected to be at least 20% cheaper than LFP due to their lithium-free nature
The price of sodium-ion battery cells is expected to be competitive with LFP cells. According to media sources, we can expect that the first generation of cells will cost $ 75 per kWh. With volume output, that figure could drop to less than $ 40 per kWh.
Even with the unpredictability in the world, the request for stationary energy depository is expanding at an ascending rate across a wide range of applications. In most cases, a stationary energy storage system refers to the use of batteries with other components. Scientists believe that this technology provides a stable, sustainable and low-cost solution to meet ever-increasing demand.